Hissha stands for Hearty, Intelligent, Scrupulous, Sophisticated, Hilarious, and Art-minded. Hissha is from Japanese means writer. Paragraph Writing Class - English Learning and Teaching 2012 - State University of Malang

Amanda Vira – 120221414932
[FINAL – Order of Important-Order of Time/Time Signal-Order of Step]

Teaching English for young learners is different to adults. Young learners learn English with fun way. What is that means? Because of have to learn English in young age, young learners are easily to get bored and feel difficult if the material is too hard. That is why we as teachers have to make the classroom condition more alive and fun to achieve the goal. The English teachers are not only able to teach well, but also know the things which are related to teach English for young learners. There are three parts that I will explain, which are, the importance of learning English, classification of young learners, and how to teach English for young learners.
            Before we are going to how to teach English for young learners, maybe you feel curious why they have to learn English in young age? There are three important reasons why they have to learn English, which are, English as international language, prepare them to be bilingual people, and open up their opportunities to be employable. The most important one is English is international language. English is use to communicate with other people from other countries. So, they do not have to learn every language of all the countries have. English is common language that foreigner speak. Another important reason is we prepared them to be bilingual people. It is important to prepare them in young age to form them ready for the future. Despite sometimes English is difficult to learn. The least important reason is the United States is a leader in technology and economic development. If they can speak English it will open up their opportunities to be international people and employable in every country in the world, not only in the United States. In the United States, English speakers earn more money than non-English speakers. Thus, English will increase their standard of living.
            Now, after we know why English is important, the next is who are young learners. We classify young learners by ages or grade levels, because every one year difference or grade level makes a big difference in learning something. There are three class of young learners, which are very young learners (age 3-6 years old), young learners (7-9 years old), and older/late young learners (10-12 years old). At age 3-6 or pre-school grade, they learn on listening and speaking courses. The materials are vocabulary items which are familiar objects and no grammar study, because they cannot analyze language, but by language chunks and songs. In this class there is no reading and writing courses, maybe learn about words. In this class just emphasize listening and speaking courses, because the characteristics of very young learners are love talking, but problems in sharing, have short memories (learn slowly and forget easily), and low concentration, but easily excited. At young learners which are age 7-9 years old or 1st-3rd grade, have the same courses focus with very young learners. The listening and speaking courses is explaining vocabulary item which are familiar and new objects. Still no grammar teaching, but they start to learn through chunks, songs and classroom language. In this class reading and writing is explain. If in the previous class they just learn words, in this class their level is sentences. The characteristics of young learners’ class are, love to ask questions, low concentration so wide kinds of activities are needed, and build confidence in expressing themselves. The last class is older/late young learners which are 10-12 years old or 4th-gth grade. Their language focuses are all the base of English, which are, listening, speaking, writing, reading, and grammar. In grammar course, they learn using particular facts and examples to make them understand. So, they still learn by concreting with the daily life and some abstracts. Their characteristics are longer attention, learning seriously, developed social and more cooperation.
            After we know the classification of young learners, now let us discuss the step of teaching English for young learners. To make class always in fun is important so teachers have to make classroom condition more alive and fun. There are three steps that must be done, which are, language chunks, using media, and topic based activities. The first step is language chunks. Teachers always use the same phrases, such as good morning, open your book. For the first time students do not know the meaning of those phrases. In practicing speaking English, the students need to know phrases which have complete meaning. Teachers not just say it but also give the function of those phrases. For example, say “Good morning” when students meet their friends or teachers in the morning, if in the afternoon they have to say “Good afternoon”, and so forth. Also try to use other phrases and use it in proper condition or action so that students will discover new phrases and understand when to use it. When students collected their tasks to teacher, the teacher said “Thank you”, then the teacher explain when “Thank you” is used. So that when they are given something by someone, they should say “Thank you”. The next step is using media. We do not communicate through words alone. As I said before, young learners learn English with fun way so that we as teachers have to create classroom situations to be more alive and fun. The media make students easier to understand and comprehend the materials, so that, media help the teachers to deliver the materials. Teachers’ posture, eye contact, movements, and facial expressions can help students understand more. Do not forget to talk loud enough, clear, easy to understand, and interesting intonation. For example still with the phrase, when we say “Good morning” to friends, we can say it with smiling and waving our hand, and also with cheerful intonation. So, that the friends that we are greet, feel that we are happy to meet them and feel cheerful too. Now, give students chance to practice to do it. Still in media aids, teachers can use pictures and visual media. Use these tools to resemble closer the real world, and to make them to use the language and learn to love it by experience of being able to communicate in another language. The last step is topic based activities. Topic based activities is begin with subjects which are appropriate or relevance and interesting for students. It is designed to make students involve by investigating the topic that chosen and using the language as the main point of teaching English for young learners. The materials are based on students’ experience and interesting topic. As in Hudelson (1991: 258), learners will be more likely to be motivated to use the new language if their attention is focused on a topic or subject that they have an interest in or care about. They can associate many words, situations, and conditions that related to the topic. When they associating the materials, it helps the students to memorizing and knows what content usually discuss in particular topic. For example, the topic is “Wake up”, what time usually they wake up, after they wake up what they usually do, and so forth. They can associate many words, situations, and conditions that related to the topic.
In a nut shell, before we start to teach English for young learners, it is better to know the concrete things related to young learners. The key of teaching English for young learners is to always make fun with the class condition and always makes them to get involved with the materials that we are given. There are many ways to make young learners have some fun when learning English. Then, we can be good teachers to help our students to be international people by English. Therefore, learning English is not always with straight and common way. Make students feel the fun experiences of learning English. When we love enjoy and love something, although is hard, we are still trying to pass it.

3. Ersöz, A. (2007). Teaching English to young learners. Ankara: EDM Publishing.   
4. Teaching English to Young Learners and Factors to Consider in Designing the Materials - By: Sukarno (Faculty of Languages and Arts Yogyakarta State University)


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