Hissha stands for Hearty, Intelligent, Scrupulous, Sophisticated, Hilarious, and Art-minded. Hissha is from Japanese means writer. Paragraph Writing Class - English Learning and Teaching 2012 - State University of Malang

Paragraph Writing : Final Project
Anjaa’a Birrqiy
Teaching English
            As we know people say English is an international language.  English is not very difficult to be learned if teachers know how to teach it.  English teachers need to know some important  keys before teaching English, three of which are who is the learners, what section is the focus, and how to manage the environment.  The first thing we need to know before teaching English is about the learners.  Teachers are supposed to have basic knowledge of psychology about learners.  It is about how to teach them by considering the learners’ age and their mental phase.  The next key that teachers should know when they teach English is what section is the focus of what they teach.  We know there are some sections in English which are listening, reading, writing, speaking and grammar.  Each Section has its own speciality that is why teachers need to know about it.  The other point which is important for teacher to know is how to manage the environment.  Managing environment is needed to motivate the learners and keep a suitable situation for learning English.  Those are three main points which teachers should know about teaching English.  Therefore, teachers are supposed to know how to make the most from those.
            We cannot deny that to be a teacher, we need to learn at least about learners’ psychology in cognitive aspects.  One theory about learners’ psychology in cognitive aspects that must be useful is Jean Piaget’s theory.  Generally, there are 4 stages in Piaget’s theory.  Stage one is called “sensorimotor”, which about 0-3 years old.  Infants learn the world physically and through sensory experiences so that they like to respond to a clear stimulus such as light and sounds.  If we play a music instrument or song, they will pay attention because of the sound.  Stage two which lasts approximately 3-8 years old is named “preoperational”.  Children can learn things if it is presented in words and pictures.  As an example, we can give pictures of fruit to teach them about fruit then ask them to classify based on one characteristic like colour.  The next stage is “concrete operational” which happen at age 8-12 years old.  Children start to think logically but it has to be concrete objects.  Let say that they can tell which glass is bigger between two different glasses as long as we bring the glasses in front of them.  The last stage of Piaget’s theory lasts from 12 to 19 years old and is called “formal operational”.  It starts when  children are becoming teenagers until then they are growing up to be adults.  A logical and abstract thinking is one characteristic of this stage such as constructing a descriptive story.  They are able to make conclusions, to develop ideas and interpretations like to comprehend a text about Big Ben then, rephrase the text in their own interpretations.  In brief, we know that learning psychology in cognitive way is a benefit for teachers.  It is strongly recommended to teachers to learn it.
            When we learn a language, we are used to dividing it into some sections.  So does English, we can divide it into listening, reading, writing, speaking, and grammar.  We can find a different key on each of sections.  If we teach a listening section in English, we must realize that learners do not have to catch every word.  The key is they can understand what they listen by the keywords of the material.  In a reading section, what important is not only understand the meaning of the material but also how to comprehend the text.  One key in reading is teachers should open up to learners’ viewpoint because reading materials can be analysed in more than one viewpoint.  Different from two sections before, two most crucial keys in writing section are vocabulary and organization.  Vocabulary helps to enrich and vary the sentences that written, while organization is about how to make a good text and can be understood by readers.  Speaking is probably a section which gives more freedom in it as we should not worry about the grammar too much.  Creating ideas is might be the most critical key in speaking.  English as a language must have grammar as the basic to learn it.  What we have to concern in grammar is the context of the sentences as it is the key to decide what rule is used.  In a nut shell, there is a difference on each section in English as its speciality.  To know what section that we learn can help teacher and learners concentrate on its speciality.
            Environment cannot be omitted as an influence on learning English.  To manage environment, there are three points that can encourage people to learn English which are motivation, conditioning, and materials.  The first cause is external motivation  which is something that becomes the reason why we want to upgrade our English ability such as parents’ desire, job necessity or any others.  As teachers, we need to motivate the learners by giving appreciation like “excellent”, “very good”, or “you did it better than before” of what they have achieved.  The second cause is about how to manage the environment so the learners are conditioned to speak English freely.  Teachers have a role to encourage and remind them to speak English so that it becomes a habit.  Eventhough Materials is the last important cause, it still gives effects to learners.  The more English materials will help them to improve their English.  Supportive materials about English help learners to exercise.  In other words, we can conclude that environment has a significant role in teaching English.  Both teachers and learners should not neglect its influence.
            Theory is nothing without the application.  To know some of those essential keys about teaching English could open up our mind about how to apply them.  Firstly, learning about psychology of learners make teachers know what to give to their learners about the level and type of the materials.  In addition, teachers can think of ways to deliver the lesson to the learners.  The next thing  is about our focus on which section that we learn should help both teachers and learners to decide the materials.  Then, teachers help the learners to learn well and deeper on each section.  The last thing is environment where teachers should have a control over it.  Controlling the environment so that it can support the learners is the point why teachers should know how to manage it.  Eventually, English is not really difficult to be learned if we know the theory to make it easy.  That is why we just need to believe that we can make it then sure it will be.

Budiningsih, Asri. 2004. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Yogyakarta: Rineka Cipta


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Theory is nothing while not the applying. to understand a number of those essential keys concerning teaching English might open up our mind concerning the way to apply them. Firstly, learning concerning scientific discipline of learners create academics grasp what to grant to their learners concerning the amount and kind of the materials writing a bibliography.

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