Indonesia Moves toward Curriculum 2013
Indonesia has changed its curriculum ten times from 1947 to KTSP (http://kupang.tribunnews.com). Those are curriculum 1947 called Planning of Teaching (Rencana Pengajaran), 1964 curriculum was Basic Education Planning (Rencana Pendidikan Dasar), 1968 curriculum was Elementary School Curriculum (Kurikulum Sekolah Dasar), 1974 PPSP (Proyek Perintis Sekolah Pembangunan) Curriculum, in 1975 was Elementary School Curriculum, in 1984, it was called 1984 Designed Curriculum , in 1994: 1984 Designed Curriculum, in 1997 : 1994 Revised Curriculum, 2004 : Curriculum Based Competence (Kurikulum Berbasis Kempetense), 2006 : KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan). Ministry of education and culture of Indonesia has already published the new curriculum for Indonesia’s education. It is called the 2013 curriculum. The 2013 curriculum will change the last curriculum KTSP. By variety of reasons, the 2013 curriculum is expected to be able to increase Indonesia’s education in this globalization era. Then now the 2013 curriculum is still being discussed as a pro-contra issue.
KTSP which now is implemented in Indonesia has significant differences in the 2013 curriculum. The most distinguished thing is the structures of those curricula. The 2013 curriculum will have a fewer subjects than KTSP. Total subjects for KTSP are 11, but in the 2013 curriculum will just have 6 subjects. They are religion, civilization (PKn), Indonesian, mathematics, culture (SBK), and sport (PJOK). Together with the changed lesson science (IPA) and social (IPS) will be integrated into Indonesian subject. Moreover, in the 2013 curriculum will apply a thematic learning method starts from 1st grade until 6th grade, though KTSP applies thematic learning method for 1st grade until 3rd grade and for 4th grade uses lesson approach. Furthermore, there is an additional time in the 2013 curriculum for elementary school. It was 26 hours, but in the new curriculum it will be 30 hours every week. On one hand, KTSP and the 2013 curriculum also have similarities. First, they are discussed and arranged by the government, specifically the Department of National Education (Depdiknas). Second, some subjects in the KTSP are still taught in the 2013 curriculum, for example Indonesian, mathematics, religion, civilization, etc. Then the 2013 curriculum might be mentioned as one-fourth revision of the KTSP.
The implementation of the 2013 curriculum has some effects in several ways somehow. The effects must be in positive or negative. The advantages are the good standard competence, the constructive approximation method, and the continuing competence from SD to SMA. Firstly, the graduation standard competence is well-ordered. According to KTSP, the subjects had to be fixed to maintain it. On the contrary, the 2013 curriculum, the determination of graduation standard competence had to be fixed first before the subjects. Secondly, the 2013 curriculum completes the approximation method based on the students’ creativity. The new curriculum fulfils three main components of education: knowledge, skill, and attitude. Knowledge is proved by the lesson in general. Skill is from their practical lesson like sports and attitude is reflected by implementing the additional time for religion subject. In view of character building and religion subjects are inserted into the 2013 curriculum more. Thirdly, the 2013 curriculum is designed continuously from SD to SMA. Specifically, the SMA competence is a continuance from SD and SMP. In spite of those positive sides, the new curriculum also has several weaknesses. The disadvantages are teachers’ position threatened to be relocated, obstruct children’s intelligence, and unobvious lesson. First, English and IT (Information and Technology) teachers might lose their job. It is because IT subject that was taught in SMP and SMA would be removed and it is also done in English for SD. As a consequence, IT and English teachers who half of them are honorary teachers will have no time to teach or the worst is they will be fired. Second, the new curriculum will just obstruct children’s intelligence. Children have eight kinds of intelligences which have to be developed. It is called Multiple Intelligence theory by Howard Gardner, Harvard University. One of the eight intelligences is Language Intelligence which can be identified from child's skill in processing words while speaking or writing. Furthermore, If English is removed as a subject for SD, students would just know fewer vocabularies might be important to learn another subject. Such as when they learn science and some words in the textbook are absorbed from English. As a result, they might have difficulties in saying English words in the future because when they were still being children, they were not accustomed to saying any English words. Third, the lesson will be unclear to learn. In fact, Social and Science lessons are combined into one. That is Indonesian. Naturally, it is difficult to differ for the students to learn science in the Indonesian. Additionally, Secretary-general of Indonesian Educators Assosiation from UPI, Dadang S Anshori, said that it is hard to integrate Social and Science lessons into Indonesian. They are not part of Indonesian . The root of them are completely different, whether based on epistemology, ontology or axiology. Overall, the 2013 curriculum seems to bright sides and dark sides to be implemented.
In this regard, the government should focus on preparing many things to implement the new curriculum. At least there are three important things must be fixed. They are the textbook, teacher training; education governance. The most significant preparation is the textbook. If the curriculum is revised, and the textbook is unchanged, as a result the new curriculum will look like a paper tiger. It means something that seems as threatening as a tiger, but does not withstand a challenge. The government should prepare source books for teachers and students, and of course both contents are different. The next prominent readiness is teachers training. In this case the implementation of the curriculum is done stage by stage so the teacher training will also be applied continuously. If the implementation starts from the 1st grade, the 4th grade, the 7th grade, and the 10th grade, at least the teachers who will join approximately 500.000. The last eminent thing which has to be fixed is the education governance. The ministry has intended the stage of the education governance. For that reason, the education governance for the 2013 curriculum is also adjusted such as the report administration book. Surely, changing the curriculum will change four aspects: the content standards, process standards, graduation standards, and assessment standards. If four standards in the KTSP are changed so that the report administration book. All of these changes mean that the new curriculum really needs a big set-up to be done by the government.
Therefore between KTSP and the 2013 curriculum make some differences and resemblances. It can be a good side and a bad side indeed. In order to control the unexpected impacts, well-preparation of the government is completely needed. In conclusion, the implementation of 2013 curriculum has faced many polemics. If the 2013 curriculum will be implemented in in the 2013/2014 academic year, the government, teachers, and every person included must support the change by doing considerably in their own authorities.
By : Mirzatus Solikhah
Armstrong, Thomas. 2002. Setiap Anak Cerdas. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Umum.